All functionality of the content is operable through a keyboard interface without requiring specific timings for individual keystrokes, except where the underlying function requires input that depends on the path of the user’s movement and not just the endpoints.
This exception relates to the underlying function, not the input technique. For example, if using handwriting to enter text, the input technique (handwriting) requires path-dependent input but the underlying function (text input) does not.
This does not forbid and should not discourage providing mouse input or other input methods in addition to keyboard operation.
Testing & Remediation How to test:
In order to test for this Success Criterion, you will need to keyboard navigate your website & confirm that everything that can be done with a mouse can be done with the keyboard alone.
How to remediate:
- Navigate and operate every interactive elements (buttons, links, navigation, widgets, etc)
- Any place where a mouse can be used to select elements, ensure the same items can be selected while using only a keyboard
- Use the keyboard to switch between tabs and then continue to navigate within the selected tab
- If an object can be manipulated using the mouse (eg. resizing), ensure that it can also be manipulated using the keyboard
- Using only the keyboard, verify that you can open, interact with and close modal dialog boxes and overlays
- Confirm that there are no specific, timed sequences of keystrokes for any functionalities
There are a number of techniques that can be used to meet the requirements of this Success Criterion. Using HTML form controls and keyboard-triggered event handlers are a couple of the options. Please see the W3C link above for details on these techniques.
Questions and Answers
Nearly all elements can be given focus, and have their focus order changed using the 'tabindex' attribute. Elements on a page will be given focus in the order of their tab index. W3 Schools has a great explanation of tabindex here
To navigate a website with the keyboard, you can start by hitting the tab key. You should see an indicator on the element that has focus. If it is a link, you can hit enter to go to it. While going forward through the tab keys is done with tab, going backwards can be done by hitting the shift key in addition to the tab key.
When it comes to various input elements (radio buttons, select boxes), the arrow keys can be used on them once the element has focus.
Carousels and sliders pose accessibility issues for keyboard and screen reader users that can be challenging to adequately address by adjusting your markup. Keep in mind that all content and controls abled users can access must be made robust enough to be accessed by all users, this means (among other things) that slider controls need to have tab-navigation consideration, timing needs to be adequate enough so that all users can read slides, and UI controls need to have enough color contrast such that they can be perceived by everyone.
Any carousel or slider can contain non-accessible content, so keep these things in mind when building content:
- Do the headers flow from h1 down without skipping a level?
- Do embedded images have adequate alt tags?
- Do the links open have descriptive titles or link text?
Below are sliders that are accessible:
- Snazzy Slider by Josh Cummings - https://www.joshcummingsdesign.com/snazzy-slider
This question depends on a number of factors including size of site, desired level of conformance, your developer's understanding of accessibility techniques, etc. Accessible Web is here to help. Reach out and we can discuss your site specifically.