All functionality of the content is operable through a keyboard interface without requiring specific timings for individual keystrokes.

This is the same as Success Criterion 2.1.1, except that no exceptions are allowed.

Testing & Remediation

How to test: *These are the same test instructions as in 2.1.1. In order to test for this Success Criterion, you will need to keyboard navigate your website & confirm that everything that can be done with a mouse can be done with the keyboard alone.
  • Navigate and operate every interactive elements (buttons, links, navigation, widgets, etc)
  • Any place where a mouse can be used to select elements, ensure the same items can be selected while using only a keyboard
  • Use the keyboard to switch between tabs and then continue to navigate within the selected tab
  • If an object can be manipulated using the mouse (eg. resizing), ensure that it can also be manipulated using the keyboard
  • Using only the keyboard, verify that you can open, interact with and close modal dialog boxes and overlays
  • Confirm that there are no specific, timed sequences of keystrokes for any functionalities
How to remediate: There are a number of techniques that can be used to meet the requirements of this Success Criterion. Using HTML form controls and keyboard-triggered event handlers are a couple of the options. Please see the W3C link above for details on these techniques.

Questions and Answers

How do I change the order the elements on my page are given focus?

Nearly all elements can be given focus, and have their focus order changed using the 'tabindex' attribute. Elements on a page will be given focus in the order of their tab index. W3 Schools has a great explanation of tabindex here.

How do I navigate a website with my keyboard?

To navigate a website with the keyboard, you can start by hitting the tab key. You should see an indicator on the element that has focus. If it is a link, you can hit enter to go to it. While going forward through the tab keys is done with tab, going backwards can be done by hitting the shift key in addition to the tab key. When it comes to various input elements (radio buttons, select boxes), the arrow keys can be used on them once the element has focus.

How long does the accessibliity process take?

This question depends on a number of factors including size of site, desired level of conformance, your developer's understanding of accessibility techniques, etc. Accessible Web is here to help. Reach out and we can discuss your site specifically.