Most of the time, no you don’t. If you are using a <button> element as a button or an <a> element as a link, you should not add any ARIA role attributes. But there are certain instances where you would.
For example, let’s say you are using an anchor element (<a>) to function as a button. Since it no longer functions as a link, you’ll need to add the role=”button” attribute, make sure it has accessible text (the text within the element or via an aria-label attribute) and follow the keyboard interaction requirements per the ARIA design pattern.